Sunday, March 22, 2009
By Ethan Edwards
A primary area of investment in corporate e-learning development is asynchronous learning. As opposed to traditional instructor-led training or even distance learning that centres on teleconferencing and online presentations, asynchronous e-learning occurs in an environment where a single learner interacts directly with content via a technology system, maximizing flexibility in timing and access for the learner by allowing learner control of pace, schedule, and location.
While traditional instructional design principles are still central to creating effective e-learning, they are not sufficient in themselves to create learning in an asynchronous learning environment. Arching over traditional design practices is the need to account for the unique requirements of computer-delivered instruction and interaction through three powerful success factors. While these factors actually apply to all learning, they are absolutely essential when designing asynchronous e-learning.
1. Motivate the learner to learn.
The importance of motivation in the learning process is well-understood. Learners (particularly adults) need to comprehend and value the anticipated outcomes of the learning event but also be energized to engage in learning activities with focused attention.
However, motivation in most traditional learning environments doesn’t come from design, but rather from unpredictable dynamic characteristics of the learning environment—the wit and personality of the instructor, social contact and expectations from peers, and real-time adjustments by students and instructors to the immediacy of the teaching moment. Unfortunately, these motivation factors are frequently absent from asynchronous e-learning. The designer must step outside of the comfortable boundaries of writing objectives and sequencing content and, in addition, design full experiences in which the learner can understand personal relevance, take ownership of incentives to perform (perhaps through risk or urgency), be an active participant in learning, and engage in an emotional context. Any e learning that fails to account for these elements will fail to connect authentically with the learner, and ultimately fail as a teaching tool, no matter how perfectly the content is crafted.
2. Focus on behavioural outcomes.
Teaching is dependent on effective two way communication. While graphics, audio, video, and other media presentation avenues provide a rich channel of information to the learner, designers of e-learning are at a severe disadvantage to create meaningful interactions simply because the methods for gaining information from the learner are so limited. Excepting specialized input mechanisms such as voice recognition or customized control devices, most lessons can only tell if the learner has pointed to something or if they have typed some letters on the keyboard. This leads to ridiculously simplistic questioning techniques.
But we know that learners best master and remember the things they do. When learners are only asked to operate at the level of trivial recall, they invest little of the effort required for meaningful learning. Furthermore, it is nearly impossible to then engage in significant meaningful feedback.
Designers must work dedicatedly to overcome these limits by designing challenges in which the learner’s actions require active processing and represent real-world actions. The learning interactions should shift away from simple recall of information and move toward application of information to achieve some valuable outcome.
3. Create meaningful and memorable experiences.
Learners need assistance in attaching meaning and significance to new content. When all content is treated identically, both in media and in teaching strategy, learners have nothing distinctive or relevant to aid them in creating competencies that will persist beyond the learning event. When asked about successful learning experiences, almost all people acknowledge that those learning events were a success more because of how the learning occurred rather than specifically what was learned.
When e-learning is built within strict standards that stipulate absolute uniformity across lessons, it becomes nearly impossible for learners to attach specific meaning to any particular bit of that content. When everything looks the same, it is hard to remember any specific detail. When content is written in the style of documentation rather than as a narrative to engage and draw the reader along, it is challenging to read for meaning.
While it is important to create standards and processes to make the development of e-learning efficient, the design still needs to create distinctiveness and purpose so that the learner has some hope of taking a long-lasting experience away from the training.
The benefits of asynchronous learning often come at the cost of meaningful and memorable learning, though e-learning is often characterized as boring, simplistic, and ineffective. Because there is no instructor present in the learning moment, the design process for asynchronous e-learning must include specific plans for engaging the learner in targeted learning actions in a way that designers of traditional instruction have not had to use.
Incorporating these principles into the design of asynchronous e-learning components is a learner entered (rather than a content-cantered) approach to instruction. Constructivist theories of learning tell us the importance of individual and active processing and assembling new knowledge and skills. Accounting for these success factors in e-learning design will automatically shift the learning environment to one in which the learner is focused on performance outcomes rather than on the simple acquisition of content.
Making It Work
…to motivate the learner
Build on existing learner motivations
Create challenge through risk
Provide intrinsic feedback and progress measures
Adjust level of challenge to learner skills
Expand user control whenever possible
…to focus on behavioural outcomes
Build activities around real-world applications
Avoid canned response mechanisms (for example,
press a, b, c, or d)
Incorporate direct manipulation of elements
Eliminate trivia-recall tasks (unless, of course, you are
Minimize overwhelming volume of “nice-to know”
…to create meaningful and memorable experiences
Use graphic elements to create an attractive and
Create challenge through risk
Provide intrinsic feedback and progress measures
Localize the experience to individual learner’s
experiences and goals where possible
Provide sufficient review and practice
E-Learning Instructional Design Certificate Program, 2-day seminar.
Offered online and at locations across North America by ASTD. See http://www/. astd.org/content/education/ certificate Programs for dates and locations
Advanced E-Learning Instructional Design Certificate Program, 2-day seminar. Offered online and at locations across North America by ASTD. See http://www.astd.org/ content/education/certificate Programs for dates and locations
Allen MW . Michael Allen’s Guide to E-Learning. Hoboken, New Jersey, Wiley Allen MA . Designing Successful e-Learning, Michael Allen’s Online Learning Library: Forget What You Know About Instructional Design and Do Something Interesting. San Francisco, Pfeiffer
The article discusses the design and construction of asynchronous e-learning instruction systems for use in the corporate environment. Asynchronous e-learning is defined by the author as an environment where a single learner interacts directly with content via a technology system. Such systems maximize flexibility of timing and access for the learner, the author states, by allowing the student to control the schedule, pace, and location of the learning. Besides, it also motivates the learner to learn, focus on behavioural outcomes, and create meaningful and memorable experiences. Do not forget also about their own challenge and results. While it is important to create standards and processes to make the development of e-learning efficient, the design still needs to create distinctiveness and purpose so that the learner has some hope of taking a long-lasting experience away from the training.
Education for Primary Care (2008) 19: 547–8 # 2008 Radcliffe Publishing Limited
The e-learning site
There is downright deceit and lying but are these instances rare? A quick look on Google or any other search engine will quickly show websites that offer the magic answer to writing an essay. A few hours (and the expense of a few pounds) later, the deceitful student can obtain the essay of their dreams. The astute educator may recognise the same essay being presented by several students but thankfully spotting the cheat is easier with the widespread use of services such as Turnitin.1 This web based service can instantly identify essays that contain unoriginal material by comparing the uploaded essay not only with material already published on the web but also with what has been previously submitted to Turn tin. The service can be integrated with all of the major VLEs (virtual learning environments) that are found in higher education. It is worthwhile seeing what is available if you are a tutor on any course in this context. A second-best approach is to pick a random piece of text from a student’s essay and search for this in Google. You may be surprised!
Most plagiarism is unintentional and simply due to being sloppy. The University of Leeds has an excellent website that is well worth visiting to update your views.2 The site notes the common and often unrecognised practice, when a piece of work is created by cutting and pasting various sections of text and/or images found on the internet into a document without referencing the sources. Does this sound familiar? I often see mini excerpts from Wikipedia or Google appearing in assignments. I suggest that all educators should become more aware and set an example themselves and also to quickly identify bad practice in their colleagues and learners.
An interesting spat has recently occurred at Toronto’s Ryerson University. 3 A student set up a Face book page in which he encouraged fellow students to send in and share answers to various chemistry problems. The student’s argument was that this was analogous to a virtual study group that students did already, including face to face. However, the university took a different stance and regarded the action as misconduct since there was swapping of answers and the online approach was ‘inappropriate’. The commentary by Ivory To sell notes the apparent paranoia that educational institutions have when faced with new technology, especially when they are not in control and it is outside the formal VLE.
This nicely leads into the current debate about control in e-learning.4 John Drone provides an eloquent discussion of the need for freedom to be given to learners to use a wide variety of web-based resources as part of their education rather than being provided with one pre-digested chunk of information on a VLE. The concern is always about the quality of the web-based resources but this can be assured by the educator previewing the content. The tutor becomes a guide rather than sole provider. The learner benefits by developing a rich learning experience that can be personalised to the learner. This process is analogous to creating your own spaghetti bolognaise from your favourite ingredients instead of something more bland from the supermarket. It takes time but the process of learning is important in becoming a life- long learner. It’s a bit like learning to cook for yourself! The challenge for all educators is to develop their teaching using this approach.
Ronald Harden recently wrote a thought-provoking commentary in Medical Teacher.5 He notes that the aspiration of e-learning is to make existing approaches to teaching and learning more effective and efficient but he highlights that much of e-learning is ‘an amateurish forrago that is neither an inspiring or rewarding learning experience’. He proposes a more fundamental shift in e-learning so that it becomes more personalised to the needs of individual learners, with a greater choice of a range of different learning resources. He also suggests that there should be greater investment in peer assisted and collaborative learning to create online communities of practice.
This vision of e-learning in the future is quite threatening to many educators. It will require fundamental changes in the way that educators conceptualise and subsequently provide e-learning experiences. My experience is that many educators simply repackage handouts and presentations onto a webpage or set up an online discussion board. The skill of an ‘e-educator’ is the creation of a learning journey that is relevant to the needs of the learner. This journey must have a clear endpoint but, like any journey, needs to be made interesting to each individual. As any parent will testify, not all kids are the same.
If you are thinking of developing your teaching and using more e-learning it is important to be clear about what you are hoping to achieve but more importantly, it is essential to consider how you expect the learner to achieve the desired outcomes. Do you want a learner that unthinkingly downloads pre-digested information sheets? Do you want a learner that is fully engaged in the learning process who looks at a range of different resources, from blogs written by patients and doctors to podcasts produced by world-class experts, and then assimilates the information to present it as a blog that can be shared with other learners?
The future vision of e-learning is within the grasp of all educators and hopefully will be provided to all learners. Technology has never been easier to use but the future is not technical. It is the fundamental pedagogy that needs to change. That is the challenge.
1 www.turnitin.com/ (accessed 02/07/08).
3 Tossell I (2008) Is it sharing? Is it cheating?
Either way, it’s the future of studying. The
Globe and Mail, 14 March 2008, www.theglobe
andmail.com/ (accessed 02/07/08).
4 Dron J (2007) Control and Constraint in ELearning:
choosing when to choose. Idea Group
Publishing: Hershey PA
5 Harden RM (2008) E-learning – caged bird or
soaring eagle? Medical Teacher 30: 1–4.
The article reports on the significance of electronic-learning (e-learning) to medical students in the U.S. These e-learning site is advantageous to medical students especially in writing essays and reports because one can get great ideas on the site. But one should avoid copying and pasting the exact text provide on the site because it is a form of plagiarism or cheating. It may be something else that we can blame on the rise of the internet. A second-best approach is to pick a random piece of text from a student’s essay and search for this in Google. You may be surprised! I suggest that all educators should become more aware and set an example themselves and also to quickly identify bad practice in their colleagues and learners. The challenge for all educators is to develop their teaching using this approach.
Saturday, March 21, 2009
Hello guys, for the next posting, which is third posting, we will know about the search engines more details. Besides, we also can differentiate what are mamma.com, Google scholar, Eric digest and yahoo.com based on their differences and similarities. Okay, let’s check it out..!!!
What is mamma.com..??
Mamma.com is a popular and "smart" Meta search engine because every time you type in a query Mamma simultaneously searches a variety of engines, directories, and deep content sites, properly formats the words and syntax for each, compiles their results in a virtual database, eliminates duplicates, and displays them in a uniform manner according to relevance. It's like using multiple search engines, all at the same time. Besides that, Mamma.com helped to introduce Meta search to the Internet as one of the first of its kind and quickly became an established search engine on the Internet. Mamma.com is different search engine if we compare to another search engines. For your information, mamma.com is created in 1996 as a master’s thesis.
What is Google scholar..??
For the second search engine is about Google scholar. Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. From one place, you can search across many disciplines and sources, for examples, peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles, from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations. Google Scholar helps you identify the most relevant research across the world of scholarly research. As we know, every search engine has their own features, similarly Google scholar. The features are search diverse sources from one convenient place, find papers, abstracts and citations, locate the complete paper through your library or on the web and last but not least are to learn about key papers in any area of search.
What is Eric digest..??
The third one is Eric digest. ERIC - the Education Resources Information Centre - is an online digital library of education research and information. ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education. ERIC provides ready access to education literature to support the use of educational research and information to improve practice in learning, teaching, educational decision-making, and research. The ERIC mission is to provide a comprehensive, easy-to-use, searchable, Internet-based bibliographic and full-text database of education research and information that also meets the requirements of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002. For your information, the ERIC main supports is to develop and manage of the digital collection, ERIC Thesaurus, Web site, and associated technologies, as well as outreach to ERIC users.
What is yahoo.com..?
Last but not least, what is yahoo.com..?I think this search engine is more popular compared to others search engines, because it is easy to access actually. I encountered and exposed with this search engine since I was standard four and yahoo.com was my first search engine. Yahoo! is a global Internet services company, providing a web portal and platform for a full range of Internet services. Yahoo! was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January of 1994 and the company is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. While Yahoo! started out as a simple web directory and search service, it has expanded through many added features over the years to become at least one of the top five web service portals out there. A unique feature of Yahoo! is that one may access every service consistently through one Yahoo! ID. By signing up for a Yahoo! ID, one may instantly have access to a home page, email account, and chat/IM account. Furthermore, the services are all integrated with each other, so that mail notifications from a Yahoo! group will go to the owner's mail account, email friends may be automatically added to the IM watch list, and so on. A Yahoo! toolbar may also be downloaded and installed on the web browser. It is available for Internet Explorer and Firefox, and can run on Windows, Mac, and Linux. The additional Instant Messenger program, Yahoo! Messenger, is a separate stand-alone program available for the same platforms.
My own view
As we know, there are four selected search engines which are mamma.com, Google scholar, Eric digest and yahoo.com have their own characterized and we can categorized and differentiate it based on their own differences and similarities.
Mamma.com is a popular and "smart" Meta search engine. Besides, normally, most of us do not have all day to browse through search engines to other search engines. Thus, mamma.com may require one to spend a lot of time browsing through these web engines before arriving to the final destination for results and I think this is different with other search engine
Based on my reading, Google Scholar is the obvious different that we can see compared to the other search engine is the categories. There are no categories being provided by this search engine and this somehow makes the job of searching for information or anything that we want to know becomes more complicated and takes the whole day of our time and it is similarly with Eric digest which do not has categories. Besides, Eric digest also is not widely use maybe because of there is not enough exposure to this kind of search engine.
When we talk about yahoo, it is not a weird thing that we had heard. I think this search engine is more popular compared to others search engines, because it is easy to access and friendly user. I encountered and exposed with this search engine since I was standard four and yahoo.com was my first search engine. . A unique feature of Yahoo! is that one may access every service consistently through one Yahoo! ID and I really enjoy it..!!
Do you that blogging can assist language learners to improve and enhance their writing skill? So how..?? The blogging has become the great information medium, enabling anyone with a relatively small commitment of time and resources to make their message available to the world. Because the content and the language used to present it are real and authentic, the blogging is a useful source for language learners. There are many blogs that touch on almost every topic and could cater the needs of people of all walks of life including English language learners, from those at the beginners’ level to the most advanced one. For English language learners, there are sites that contain tips and activities that can be used to add more spice, varieties and creativity in writing. Blogs are not only on-line journals; they can be used also in an interactive way. While most blogs are created and managed by individuals, group blogs are also possible. Blogs are easily linked and cross-linked, to create larger on-line communities. There has been increasing interest in using blogs in education. They are well suited to serve as on-line personal journals for students. Language learners could use a personal blog, linked to a course, showing development over time. By publishing the blog on the Internet, the student has the possibility of writing for readers beyond classmates, not usually possible in discussion forums. Readers in turn can comment on what they're read. Self-publishing encourages ownership and responsibility on the part of students, who may be more thoughtful if they know they are writing for a real audience.
I have an article to show how the blog is related with the writing skill.
Blogs Like All Forms of Writing Are an Art Form That Takes Knowledge and Practice to Do Well
By: Balwinder Singh
Writing…Blogs…Blogs are on-line journals where people express themselves through writing. Writing…Writing is the process where one puts down words of a language on a format that others can read. This process has not been around very long, to use one of my writing teacher’s favourite sayings, "Writing has only existed for one day in the one year that humanity has existed." Speaking and thinking come much easier than writing. These processes just flow out naturally like a river of consciousness; sometimes we hardly have to think about doing them. Anyone and everyone can write words down on paper but that doesn’t mean it’s ‘good writing’, myself included. Like most things in life, our society already takes writing for granted which is proving to expose more of our ignorance. Writing is a new form of expression, and if we want to do it in a way that the masses can connect with our ideas, we have to think much more simply and clearly about this art.
Now that was quite a big paragraph, you’ve got to wonder if I really needed to say as much as I just did to introduce this article on the best way to write your blogs on the Web. I didn’t even mention this main idea, and that’s what an introduction paragraph is meant to be for. This is a common mistake in many blogs out there. We try to get too many ideas across in one paragraph, sometimes even in one sentence! The key, as in all things in life-is to keep it simple. Simplicity means that readers won’t get confused about what your journal entry is actually about. Introduce your main general topic at the start, and use the subsequent paragraphs to discuss separate ideas that relate to this topic. Try to tie everything up in the concluding paragraph, your main argument and the reason why you’ve written in the first place.
Grammar and sentence construction are not easy systems to master, especially if you come from a school system that spent more time telling you about historical battles and quadratic equations than on how to read and write. This is a real problem. When we speak we can get messages across to others easily, but if we put these words down on paper, the writing just isn’t interesting and doesn’t connect with people’s curiosities and fascination. When you write you are not talking to a close friend. You can’t use slang and colloquialisms that only your local community can understand. The aim is to connect with all the people in the world, so let’s make it crystal clear and enjoyable to read.
Your computer has spelling and grammar checks, as well as access to a thesaurus. Use them, but remember that the machine can’t decipher all the intricacies of language. Language is a world in itself, and much of its territories are undiscovered by the masses. So, again keep it simple. Short, precise sentences with single ideas are great. Many words in the English language have the same meanings (synonyms). Use the thesaurus so you don’t repeat the same word over and over throughout the text. It keeps the story fresh and doesn’t turn the reader off. There’s nothing more boring than repetition. Using different words can be a lot of fun and a learning experience, just make sure you use a dictionary (also on the computer/Internet) to make absolute sure of the word’s definition.
Readability…Simplicity…Make your blog accessible by all people. You can even take into consideration that many readers will have learned English as a second language. As I’ve said in previous articles, keep to the point-don’t go on tangents. Stick with the article’s topic, and
definitely stay within the realms of your blog’s main area. If your blog is entitled "Jazz music", people who go there don’t want to hear about how your football team won on the weekend! Please be consistent. How irritating is it to visit a blog that hasn’t been written on in months or years?
I hope these little tips will help you on your quest to producing ‘good’ writing that brings new friends and acquaintances of similar outlooks into your world. If you want people to read, the aim is to produce an emotional reaction in your reader. Pretend you are writing to another form of yourself, if it were not readable, interesting and fun…would you stick around?
Article Source: http://www.ArticleBiz.comLast but not least, I want to tell and share with you the blog that I really enjoy to read is http://www.yoyooh.com. This blog is really suitable for us which is youth generation to search or update the information that we need.
By: Margaret Bell
How to Prevent Wrinkles
To prevent wrinkles we must prevent oxidation. Oxidation in the body and in the skin is like what happens to metal when it gets wet--it rusts. The same thing happens with food when bacteria invades it, it spoils. Well, our body doesn't rust or spoil. So what happens?
Free Radicals - The "Rust" in the Skin
Free radicals are runaway cells in the body looking for a place to rest. They go bumping around other cells causing damage. Antioxidants help stop this rampage of free radicals. One source and probably the best is from the plant world. Plants have antioxidants within themselves for protection against UV sun ray damage. When these plant antioxidants are applied to our skin, the result is less wrinkles. But how does this take place?
Antioxidants from Plants
A citrus bioflavonoid called hesperidin or vitamin P is a plant antioxidant. What vitamin P does is strengthen the skin blood vessels. This is very important for for deep eye wrinkles because the skin is much thinner in that area. The blood vessels around the eye and on the forehead must be in good shape to remove toxins. These toxins cause baggy eyes, puffiness and dark circles. Vitamin P helps remove this toxicity.
Chrysin is another excellent plant antioxidant. It is a natural anti-inflammatory that hails from the blue passion flower. Inflammation is a culprit that promotes wrinkles. Chrysin helps check that damage.
Deep Forehead Wrinkles
Forehead wrinkles and eye wrinkles are solved pretty much with the same ingredients. The solution for both is to simply grow new skin. How?
Wrinkle creams that have amino acids can decrease forehead wrinkles. Amino acids such as: valine, tetra-peptide 7, tryptophan, and keratin work very well. Using them on the skin has proven to be a supporting factor in producing new skin cells. This happens because when elastin and collagen are increased the skin takes on a smoother appearance because of a firmer skin.
Making faces and frowning are sometimes blamed for causing wrinkles especially on the forehead. True or not scientists have made synthetic protein lotions that help relax the skin. The fact is that the result is only temporary and I suggest not using synthetics. Go for real natural ingredients in skin care products. Natural is always the better, safer choice. Just be sure that when it says, 'natural', that it really is truly natural, not some fake synthetic ingredient.
Deep Wrinkle Solution
The solution to just about any type of wrinkle is to get the body to grow new skin. This is what the body has been doing all of our lives. Our job is to encourage it to keep up the good work and not slow down. The problem is as age increases the skin growing process slows down. What then is the answer to new skin slowdown?
I have categorized this article as reading for information because I think this information is very important to we know and how to prevent wrinkles around eyes.This article maybe more to beauty and women are more care about it.Besides, this article also give me the information about deep wrinkle solution which is I need to know for my own good actually.
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